All events

17 July 2016

From CERN press release dated 17 July 2016:

On 17 July 2016, Romania became the twenty-second Member State of CERN.

Contacts between CERN and Romania began back in 1991, when a scientific and technical cooperation agreement was signed, establishing the legal framework for later developments.

Timelines
Member states
22 October 2015

CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, began producing ion beams at higher energies. The first cryomodule of the new HIE-ISOLDE (High-Intensity and Energy ISOLDE) accelerator is up and running, increasing the beam energy from 3 to 4.3 MeV per nucleon. 

Timelines
ISOLDE
14 July 2015

Configuration possible des quarks dans un pentaquark. Les cinq quarks pourraient être étroitement liés (à gauche). Ils pourraient également être assemblés en un méson (un quark et un antiquark) et un baryon (trois quarks), et faiblement liés (Image : Daniel Dominguez)

Selon le site web du CERN :

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
14 July 2015

Possible layout of the quarks in a pentaquark particle. The five quarks might be tightly bound (left). They might also be assembled into a meson (one quark and one antiquark) and a baryon (three quarks), weakly bound together (Image: Daniel Dominguez)

From the CERN website:

Timelines
The history of CERN
3 June 2015

From an update on the CERN website: 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
13 April 2015

Radioactive ion beams from many chemical elements are produced at ISOLDE and more than 1000 Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) are available for the users.  With a Carbon nanotube target the element boron could be produced as a RIB for the first time and the isotope 8B (T1/2=770 ms) could be observed. With this addition to the palette of ISOLDE beams the Facility can now provide beams from 74 chemical elements to the user community.

Timelines
ISOLDE
23 March 2015

The first beams at the energy of 13 TeV circulated in the Large Hadron Collider at XXXX this morning

Timelines
Long Shutdown 1
26 February 2015

From the CERN website, posted 24 November 2014:

Over the weekend, proton beams came knocking on the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) door. Shooting from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and into the two LHC injection lines, the proton beams were stopped just short of entering the accelerator. 

Timelines
Long Shutdown 1
26 February 2015

From the CERN website, posted 9 December 2014: 

Timelines
Long Shutdown 1
17 December 2014

From the CERN website, posted 17 December 2014:

Last week the cryogenics team at CERN finished filling the arc sections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with liquid helium. The helium, which is injected into magnetsthat steer particle beams around the 27-kilometre accelerator, cools the machine to below 4 degrees kelvin (-269.15°C).

Timelines
Long Shutdown 1
29 September 2014

On 29 September 1954, the CERN Convention entered into force, officially establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research with 12 European member states. CERN celebrated “60 years of science for peace” with an official ceremony on 29 September and numerous public events taking place throughout the year.

Check out the website that contains a record of the activities that marked the Organization’s 60th Anniversary.

Timelines
Archive of important events in CERN's history for press
18 June 2014

Content to come

Timelines
Long Shutdown 1
2 June 2014

Content to come

Timelines
Long Shutdown 1
21 May 2014

Inspired by the 1PeV events, IceCube began a follow up search with combined two powerful techniques. The first was to distinguish neutrino interactions that originated inside the detector from events which originate outside it. The second technique capitalized on the fact that downgoing atmospheric neutrinos should be accompanied by a cosmic-ray air shower depositing one or more muons inside IceCube whereas cosmic neutrinos should be unaccompanied. Consequently, a very high energy isolated downgoing neutrino is likely to be cosmic.

Timelines
Cosmic rays
5 May 2014

From the CERN website, posted 5 May 2014:

Timelines
Long Shutdown 1
6 January 2014

From CERN press release dated 15 January 2014: 

 

At a ceremony today at CERN, the Israeli flag was hoisted for the first time to join the other 20 flags of the organization’s Member States, after UNESCO officially recorded Israel's accession as a new CERN Member State on 6 January 2014.

Timelines
Member states
1 January 2014

The LHC will be upgraded to 14 TeV collision energy. The first major upgrade is Phase I, scheduled for 2018, and Phase 2 in 2022. The experiments will continue taking data until 2035. By then ATLAS expects to have collected 100 times more data than they had at the beginning of Long Shutdown 1.

Timelines
The ATLAS experiment
8 October 2013

François Englert (left) and Peter Higgs at CERN on 4 July 2012, on the occasion of the announcement of the discovery of a Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
9 May 2013

In the middle of 2013 the success of combined technical and physical efforts was demonstrated in three papers published in Nature within the space of one month.

Timelines
ISOLDE
16 February 2013

On Saturday 16 February at 8.25am the shift crew in the CERN Control Centre extract the beams from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time before the machine's first Long Shutdown. The following message marks the event on LHC Page 1: "No beam for a while. Access required: Time estimate ~2 years."

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
16 February 2013

The news on the CERN website posted 18 February 2013:

On Saturday at 8.25am the shift crew in the CERN Control Centre extracted the beams from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time before the machine's first Long Shutdown. The following message marked the event on LHC Page 1: "No beam for a while. Access required: Time estimate ~2 years."

Timelines
Long Shutdown 1
1 February 2013

(Image: The ATLAS pixel detector is reinserted into the experiment after upgrade work)

In February 2013, the LHC and its experiments, including ATLAS, began its first Long Shutdown for maintenance and first upgrades to prepare for higher luminosity operations. By the end of 2013, ATLAS had produced almost 300 publications. 

Timelines
The ATLAS experiment
22 November 2012

(Image: Groundbreaking for the CERN-MEDICIS building. From left - R. Meuli, Chef du Département de Radiologie Médicale, CHUV, D. Hanahan, Director, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research R. Heuer, Directeur général, CERN Y. Grandjean Secrétaire général, HUG P. Piet Van Duppen, Nuclear Spectroscopy Group, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Credit: Maximillien Brice/ CERN)

Timelines
ISOLDE
1 August 2012

The ATLAS and CMS collaborations submitted papers to the journal Physics Letters B outlining the latest on their searches for the Higgs boson. The teams reported even stronger evidence for the presence of a new Higgs-like particle than they announced the month before.

Timelines
The search for the Higgs boson
4 July 2012

Le 4 juillet 2012, en prélude à ICHEP 2012, la plus grande conférence de physique des particules de l’année, se tenant à Melbourne, les expériences ATLAS et CMS présentent leurs derniers résultats préliminaires dans la recherche de l’insaisissable boson de Higgs. Les deux expériences annoncent qu’elles ont observé une nouvelle particule dans la gamme de masses au voisinage de 125-126 GeV.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
4 July 2012

On 4 July 2012, as a curtain raiser to the year’s major particle physics conference, ICHEP 2012 in Melbourne, the ATLAS and CMS experiments present their latest preliminary results in the search for the long-sought Higgs particle. Both experiments have observed a new particle in the mass region around 125-126 GeV. 

Timelines
The ATLAS experiment, The Large Hadron Collider, The history of CERN, The search for the Higgs boson, Archive of important events in CERN's history for press
8 May 2012

CERN today signed a contract with the Wigner Research Centre for Physics in Budapest for an extension to the CERN data centre. Under the new agreement, the Wigner Centre will host CERN equipment that will substantially extend the capabilities of the LHC Computing Grid Tier-0 activities. This contract is initially until 31 December 2015, with the possibility of up to four one-year extensions thereafter.

Timelines
Computing at CERN
5 April 2012

(image: event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8TeV)

On 5 April 2012, LHC physics data taking gets underway at a new record collision energy of 8TeV. The LHC declares "stable beams" as two 4 TeV proton beams are brought into collision at the LHC’s four interaction points. This signals the start of physics data taking by the LHC experiments for 2012.  The collision energy of 8 TeV is a new world record, and increases the machine’s discovery potential considerably.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
13 December 2011

Lors d’un séminaire, les expériences ATLAS et CMS présentent l’état de leurs recherches sur le boson de Higgs du Modèle standard. Leurs résultats sont fondés sur l’analyse d’un nombre de données beaucoup plus grand que ceux présentés pendant les conférences d’été, suffisamment important pour permettre des progrès considérables dans cette quête, mais pas assez pour que l’on puisse affirmer véritablement l’existence, ou la non-existence, de cet insaisissable boson.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
13 December 2011

In a seminar today the ATLAS and CMS experiments present the status of their searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. Their results are based on the analysis of considerably more data than those presented at the summer conferences, enough to make significant progress in the search for the Higgs boson, but not enough to make any conclusive statement on the existence or non-existence of the elusive Higgs.

Timelines
The search for the Higgs boson, The history of CERN, The Large Hadron Collider
18 October 2011

On 18 October 2011, the grand total of data delivered by the LHC during the year reaches almost six inverse femtobarns. At the beginning of the year’s run, the objective for the LHC was to deliver a quantity of data known to physicists as one inverse femtobarn – approximately 100 trillion (102) proton-proton collisions - during the course of 2011. The first inverse femtobarn came on 17 June, setting the experiments up well for the major physics conferences of the summer and requiring the 2011 data objective to be revised upwards to five inverse femtobarns.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
9 August 2011

In 2013 IceCube presented two events at around 1 PeV, the first recorded on 9 August 2011, the second on 3 January 2012. Both of these events were part of the search for ultra high energy cosmogenic neutrinos  and were completely unexpected. These were the highest neutrino energies to be observed with an equivalent mass energy of over 1 million protons or about 250 times the energy of one of the protons accelerated at the LHC. The neutrinos detected may have originated from Galactic or extragalactic sources of cosmic rays.

Timelines
Cosmic rays
28 July 2011

In a paper published today in the journal Nature, the Japanese-European ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported a new measurement of the antiproton’s mass accurate to about one part in a billion. Precision measurements of the antiproton mass provide an important way to investigate nature’s apparent preference for matter over antimatter.

Timelines
The story of antimatter
5 June 2011

L’expérience ALPHA du CERN annonce qu’elle a réussi à piéger des atomes d’antimatière pendant plus de 16 minutes, soit suffisamment longtemps pour commencer à étudier leurs propriétés en détail. ALPHA s’inscrit dans un vaste programme de recherches menées auprès du Décélérateur de protons du CERN, dans l’espoir de percer les mystères de l’une des substances les plus insaisissables de la nature.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
5 June 2011

The ALPHA experiment at CERN reported today that it succeeded in trapping antimatter atoms for over 16 minutes: long enough to begin to study their properties in detail. ALPHA is part of a broad programme at CERN’s antiproton decelerator investigating the mysteries of one of nature’s most elusive substances.

Timelines
The story of antimatter, The history of CERN
16 May 2011

AMS during tests at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, in 1999 (Image: Laurent Guiraud)

Timelines
Cosmic rays
18 December 2010

On 18 December 2010, the expanded version of AMANDA, IceCube was completed. IceCube works in the same way as AMANDA but on a larger scale. AMANDA was incorporated into IceCube after operating for nine years. IceCube took seven years to complete and measures Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions in a cubic kilometer of transparent ice – the water equivalent of one million swimming pools.

Timelines
Cosmic rays
30 March 2010

(Image: Martin Aleksa, Lyndon Evans, Fabiola Gianotti and Peter Jenni toast running at 7 TeV)

After initial lower energy collision physics from November 2009 onwards, ATLAS records collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy for the first time.

Particle physicists around the world anticipate a rich harvest of new physics as the LHC begins its first long run at an energy three and a half times higher than previously achieved at a particle accelerator.

Timelines
The ATLAS experiment, The Large Hadron Collider, Archive of important events in CERN's history for press
28 February 2010

After a short technical stop, beams circulate again on 28 February 2010. On 19 March 2010, two 3.5 TeV proton beams successfully circulate in the Large Hadron Collider for the first time. This is the highest energy yet achieved in a particle accelerator and an important step on the way to the start of the LHC research programme. 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
16 December 2009

On 16 December 2009, the LHC ends its first full period of operation. Collisions at 2.36 TeV set a new world record and bring to a close a successful first run for the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. The LHC is put into standby mode for a short technical stop to prepare for higher energy collisions and the start of the main research programme. Over the 2009 run, each of the LHC’s four major experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb have recorded over one million particle collisions, which are distributed for analysis around the world on the LHC computing grid. 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
20 November 2009

From a CERN press release, dated 20 November 2009: 

Particle beams are once again circulating in the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This news comes after the machine was handed over for operation on Wednesday morning. A clockwise circulating beam was established at ten o'clock this evening. This is an important milestone on the road towards first physics at the LHC, expected in 2010.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
2 September 2009

(Image: The ISOLDE beamline, equipped with the first HIE-ISOLDE cryomodule in its light grey cryostat)

Timelines
ISOLDE
30 April 2009

Le 53e et dernier aimant de remplacement pour le Grand collisionneur de hadrons (LHC) est descendu dans le tunnel de l’accélérateur. Cela sonne la fin des travaux de réparation en surface ayant suivi l’incident de septembre 2008, qui avait interrompu l’exploitation du LHC.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
30 April 2009

The 53rd and final replacement magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is lowered into the accelerator tunnel, marking the end of repair work above ground following the incident in September the year before that brought LHC operations to a halt.

Timelines
The history of CERN, The Large Hadron Collider
13 March 2009

On 13 March 2009, Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee returned to the birthplace of his invention, 20 years after submitting his paper ‘Information Management: A Proposal’ to his boss Mike Sendall. By writing the words ‘Vague, but exciting’ on the document’s cover, and giving Berners-Lee the go-ahead to continue, Sendall was signing into existence the information revolution of our times: the World Wide Web.

Timelines
Archive of important events in CERN's history for press
12 February 2009

CERN today hosted a visit from actors Tom Hanks and Ayelet Zurer and director Ron Howard as they unveiled exclusively some select footage from their new film adaptation of Dan Brown’s novel Angels & Demons, set for worldwide release by Sony Pictures on 15 May 2009.

Read the full Press Release.

Timelines
Archive of important events in CERN's history for press
21 October 2008

In line with Japanese tradition, this Daruma doll was painted with one eye to mark the start of the LHC project. The Japanese Vice Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology T. Yamauchi adds the second eye to mark the completion of the project. 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
19 September 2008

Le 19 septembre 2008, au cours des essais d’alimentation du circuit des dipôles principaux dans le secteur 3-4 du LHC, la défaillance d’une connexion électrique se produit dans une région située entre un dipôle et un quadripôle, ce qui entraîne des détériorations mécaniques et une fuite d’hélium des masses froides des aimants vers le tunnel. Les procédures de sécurité adéquates sont en vigueur, les systèmes de sécurité fonctionnent comme prévu et personne n’est mis en danger.

Pour en savoir plus sur l’incident :

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
19 September 2008

On 19 September 2008, during powering tests of the main dipole circuit in Sector 3-4 of the LHC, a fault occurs in the electrical bus connection in the region between a dipole and a quadrupole, resulting in mechanical damage and release of helium from the magnet cold mass into the tunnel. Proper safety procedures are in force, the safety systems perform as expected, and no-one is put at risk.

Timelines
The history of CERN, The Large Hadron Collider
10 September 2008

Le 10 septembre 2008, à 10 h 28, on fait circuler pour la première fois un faisceau de protons le long des 27 kilomètres du Grand collisionneur de hadrons. La machine est prête à entrer dans une nouvelle ère de découvertes, à la frontière des hautes énergies.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
10 September 2008

At 10.28am on 10 September 2008 a beam of protons is successfully steered around the 27-kilometre Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the first time. The machine is ready to embark on a new era of discovery at the high-energy frontier.

LHC experiments address questions such as what gives matter its mass, what the invisible 96% of the universe is made of, why nature prefers matter to antimatter and how matter evolved from the first instants of the universe’s existence.

Explore the resources prepared for press.

Timelines
The history of CERN, CERN accelerators, The Large Hadron Collider, The search for the Higgs boson, Archive of important events in CERN's history for press
23 July 2008

The pixel detector barrel is the last large piece of the CMS detector to be lowered into the cavern. 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
29 February 2008

A component known as a small wheel is the last large piece of the ATLAS detector to be lowered into the cavern. The ATLAS detector has the largest volume of any detector ever constructed.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
9 November 2007

In November 2007, the Auger project published results showing that the direction of origin of the 27 highest energy events were strongly correlated with the location of active galactic nuclei (AGN). An active galactic nucleus is a compact region at the centre of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion, and possibly all, of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Timelines
Cosmic rays
7 November 2007

(Image: ISCOOL, an ion cooler and buncher installed at ISOLDE)

An ion cooler and buncher, ISCOOL, is installed in the HRS section of ISOLDE. Beams with strongly reduced emittances and energy spreads are now available for all experiments downstream the beam line.

Timelines
ISOLDE
26 April 2007

The last superconducting magnet is lowered down an access shaft to the LHC. The 15-metre dipoles, each weighing 35 tonnes, are the most complex components of the machine. In total, 1232 dipoles were lowered to 50 metres below the surface via a special oval shaft. They were then taken through a transfer tunnel to their final destination in the LHC tunnel, carried by a specially designed vehicle travelling at 3 kilometres per hour.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
20 November 2006

L’aimant toroïdal tonneau d’ATLAS, alors le plus grand aimant supraconducteur jamais construit, est mis sous tension pour la première fois au CERN, le 20 novembre 2006. Il doit son nom à sa forme, qui évoque celle d’un tonneau.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
20 November 2006

The ATLAS Barrel Toroid, a characteristic component of the detector, then the largest superconducting magnet ever built, was switched on for the first time. It works together with the two Endcap Toroids and central Solenoid magnet systems to bend the paths of charged particles produced in collisions at the LHC, enabling important properties to be measured.

Timelines
The ATLAS experiment
20 November 2006

The ATLAS Barrel Toroid, then the largest superconducting magnet ever built, was switched on for the first time at CERN on 20 November 2006. The magnet is called the Barrel Toroid because of its barrel-like shape.

It provides a powerful magnetic field for ATLAS, one of the major particle detectors taking data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The magnet consists of eight superconducting coils, each in the shape of a round-cornered rectangle, 5 metres wide, 25m long and weighing 100 tonnes, all aligned to millimetre precision.

Timelines
The history of CERN
1 February 2005

After six and a half years of work, CERN leaders and dignitaries celebrate the completion of a second detector cavern. The CMS cavern is 53 x 27 x 24 metres. To make space for the enormous detector, 250,000 cubic metres of soil have been removed from the detector cavern and a second space that houses technical components.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
19 October 2004

Le CERN fête dignement son cinquantième anniversaire, avec l’inauguration du Globe de la science et de l’innovation (en construction sur la photo) le 19 octobre. Offert par la Confédération suisse, le Globe est une structure en bois emblématique, d’abord utilisée pendant l’Exposition nationale suisse de 2002 comme pavillon consacré au thème du développement durable. Il a été conçu par les architectes genevois Thomas Büchi et Hervé Dessimoz.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
19 October 2004

CERN celebrated its 50th anniversary in style, with the inauguration of the Globe of Science and Innovation (pictured, under construction) on 19 October. A gift from the Swiss Confederation, the Globe is an iconic wooden structure first used for the Swiss national exhibition in 2002 as a pavilion dedicated to the theme of sustainable development. It was designed by architects Thomas Büchi and Hervé Dessimoz of Geneva. The Globe is being developed into a new visitor and networking centre for the Laboratory — a focal point for CERN’s interaction with society.

Timelines
The history of CERN, Archive of important events in CERN's history for press
1 July 2004

(Image: A 3-D drawing of the Class A Lab with a photo inset)

The new Class A building at ISOLDE is built to enable UCx target material to be produced and irradiated targets to be handled safely. The Class A laboratory is equipped with fume cupboards, full protective measures and aerosol monitoring. It can handle 150 g UO2 per day, corresponding to two target containers.

Timelines
ISOLDE
19 February 2004

The aim of the European Datagrid project was to produce a "production quality" computing Grid, in anticipation of the construction of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. According to the project's website:

The objective is to build the next generation computing infrastructure providing intensive computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases, from hundreds of terabytes to petabytes, across widely distributed scientific communities

Timelines
Computing at CERN
5 November 2003

The LHC forward collaboration proposes to build two small calorimeters near the ATLAS detector for high-energy cosmic ray research.

Read the LHCf letter of intent

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
21 October 2003

Upon completing its 100th surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector that uses two independent methods of detecting and studying cosmic rays. The observatory detects high-energy particles through their interaction with water placed in the surface detector tanks. The other method of detection is through tracking the development of air showers through observing the ultraviolet light emitted high in the earth’s atmosphere. 

Timelines
Cosmic rays
15 September 2003

The following is an extract from: "The LHC computing grid project at CERN" (Lamanna, 2004)

Timelines
Computing at CERN
15 July 2003

The photomultiplier tubes within these basketball-sized glass orbs are at the heart of the AMANDA neutrino telescope, a novel telescope being built at the South Pole to detect cosmic neutrinos (Image: Jeff Miller)


Timelines
Cosmic rays
4 June 2003

After three years of work, the ATLAS detector cavern (35 x 55 x 40 metres) is fully excavated and completed. CERN officials and dignitaries celebrate the first new LHC cavern on 4 June 2003, complete with an alpinhorn player.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
4 June 2003

After five years of innovative and ingenious civil engineering, the ATLAS detector cavern (35 x 55 x 40 metres) was fully excavated. ATLAS, CERN officials, and political authorities, including the President of the Swiss Confederation Pascal Couchepin, celebrated the inauguration of the first cavern on the Large Hadron Collider on 4 June 2003. Installation of the detector in the cavern began soon after. 

Timelines
The ATLAS experiment
18 September 2002

Two CERN experiments, ATHENA and ATRAP, created thousands of atoms of antimatter in a “cold” state in 2002. Cold means that the atoms are slow moving, which makes it possible to study them before they meet ordinary matter and annihilate. Antihydrogen formed in the experiments when cold positrons and antiprotons were brought together and held in a specially designed “trap”. Once formed, the electrically neutral antihydrogen atoms drifted out of the trap and annihilated.

Find out more

Timelines
The story of antimatter
5 July 2002

Construction workers use a modified cement truck on stilts to reinforce the floor of the ATLAS cavern. 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
31 May 2002

A digger removes the final sods of earth from the sides of the cavern that will house the ATLAS detector. 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
31 October 2001

A new accelerator, REX-ISOLDE, is put into operation on 31 October 2001. This post-accelerator has opened up new fields of research using radioactive ion beams of higher energies. REX-ISOLDE can provide post-accelerated nuclei covering the whole mass range from He to U for reaction studies and Coulomb excitation with energies up to 3 MeV/u. To this day, REX has accelerated over 100 isotopes of more than 30 different elements.

Timelines
ISOLDE
2 November 2000

Le Grand collisionneur électron-positon est arrêté définitivement le 2 novembre 2000, à 8 h du matin. Le 9 octobre, des représentants des gouvernements de nombreux pays s’étaient rendus au CERN pour célébrer les exploits du LEP et ses 11 années de fonctionnement. Le tunnel étant désormais dégagé, les équipes peuvent commencer à creuser les cavernes destinées à abriter les quatre grands détecteurs du Grand collisionneur de hadrons.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
2 November 2000

The Large Electron-Positron collider was shut down for the last time at 8am on 2 November 2000. Members of government from around the world gathered at CERN on 9 October to celebrate the achievements of LEP and its 11 years of operational life. With the tunnel now  available for work, teams began excavating the caverns to house the four big detectors on the Large Hadron Collider.

Timelines
The Large Electron-Positron Collider, The history of CERN, CERN accelerators
11 June 1999

Bulgaria became a full member state of CERN on 11 June, when it gave UNESCO its instrument of ratification of the constitutive Convention of CERN.

Timelines
Member states
17 September 1998

LHCb est la quatrième expérience approuvée pour le LHC. Son but est d’étudier le phénomène appelé violation de CP, qui contribuerait à expliquer la prédominance de la matière sur l’antimatière dans l’Univers.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
17 September 1998

LHCb is the fourth experiment approved for the LHC. The experiment will study the phenomenon known as CP violation, which would help to explain why matter dominates antimatter in the universe.

Timelines
The history of CERN, The Large Hadron Collider
10 July 1998

As construction workers are preparing the work site for the CMS-detector cavern, they unearth 4th century Gallo-Roman ruins. The find delays work for 6 months while archaeologists excavate the site. 

The archaeologists find a Gallo-Roman villa with surrounding fields, as well as coins from Ostia (a seaport of Rome), Lyons in France (then Gaul) and London.

 

 

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
15 February 1998

The Monopole and Exotics Detector at the LHC proposes to build a detector to search for highly ionizing particles and slow exotic decays at the LHC. The letter of intent marks the first official use of the name MoEDAL. It will be the LHC’s seventh detector.

Read the MoEDAL letter of intent

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
19 December 1997

At the December session of the CERN council, representatives of the United States sign an agreement to contribute $531 million to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Martha Krebs, Director of the Office of Energy Research (DOE) and Bob Eisenstein, Assistant Director of Physical and Mathematical Science at the National Science Foundation sign on behalf of the US, and CERN Director-General Christopher Llewellyn Smith signs on behalf of the laboratory.

At the same meeting, the US is granted observer status at CERN.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
15 August 1997

The Total Cross Section, Elastic Scattering Diffraction Dissociation collaboration proposes to build a detector to measure the basic properties of proton-proton collisions at high energy. The letter of intent marks the first official use of the name TOTEM.

Read the TOTEM letter of intent

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
25 February 1997

Satellite image showing spring ice melt underway on Lake Baikal (Image: NASA Earth Observatory)

NT200, a detector in lake Baikal played a pioneering role in neutrino astronomy. NT200 was constructed between 1993 and 1998. However, in 1994 NT200 detected two neutrino events when only 36 of the final 192 photodetectors were set up. These were the first of several hundred thousand atmospheric neutrinos which NT200 later detected.

Timelines
Cosmic rays
14 February 1997

La Commission de la recherche du CERN approuve officiellement l’expérience ALICE. Cette dernière, qui réutilise l’aimant de l’expérience L3 du LEP, vise à étudier le plasma quarks-gluons, un état de la matière qui aurait existé dans les premiers instants de l’Univers.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
14 February 1997

The CERN research board officially approves the ALICE experiment. Re-using the L3 magnet experiment from the LEP, ALICE is designed to study quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that would have existed in the first moments of the universe.

Timelines
The history of CERN, The Large Hadron Collider
7 February 1997

En 1996, les machines à antiprotons du CERN (Accumulateur d’antiprotons ou AC, Collecteur d’antiprotons, et Anneau d’antiprotons de basse énergie ou LEAR) sont mises hors service afin de libérer des ressources pour le Grand collisionneur de hadrons. Un  groupe de scientifiques spécialistes de l’antimatière souhaite toutefois continuer les expériences de LEAR sur les antiprotons lents. Le Conseil demande à la division du Synchrotron à protons de chercher un moyen peu onéreux de fournir les faisceaux à basse énergie nécessaires.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
7 February 1997

In 1996 CERN's antiproton machines – the Antiproton Accumulator (AC), the Antiproton Collector and the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) – were closed down to free resources for the Large Hadron Collider. But a community of antimatter scientists wanted to continue their LEAR experiments with slow antiprotons. Council asked the Proton Synchrotron division to investigate a low-cost way to provide the necessary low-energy beams.

Timelines
The story of antimatter, CERN accelerators, The history of CERN
31 January 1997

Quatre ans après les premières propositions techniques, les expériences CMS et ATLAS sont officiellement approuvées. Il s’agit d’expériences généralistes dont le but est d’étudier la nature fondamentale de la matière et les forces qui façonnent notre Univers, et notamment le boson de Higgs.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
31 January 1997

Four years after the first technical proposals, the experiments CMS and ATLAS are officially approved. Both are general-purpose experiments designed to explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, including the Higgs boson.

Timelines
The history of CERN, The Large Hadron Collider
20 October 1995

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project is approved by the CERN council in December 1994. The LHC study group publish the LHC Conceptual Design Report, which details the architecture and operation of the LHC, in October 1995.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider, CERN accelerators
15 September 1995

Une équipe dirigée par Walter Oelert crée pour la première fois des atomes d’antihydrogène, dans l’Anneau d’antiprotons de basse énergie (LEAR) du CERN. Neuf de ces atomes sont produits par des collisions entre antiprotons et atomes de xénon, sur une période de trois semaines. Chacun d’entre eux a existé pendant environ 40 milliardièmes de seconde et voyagé à une vitesse proche de celle de la lumière sur dix mètres, avant de s’annihiler au contact de matière ordinaire. C’est ce phénomène d’annihilation qui produit le signal indiquant la création d’antiatomes.

Timelines
L’histoire du CERN
15 September 1995

A team led by Walter Oelert created atoms of antihydrogen for the first time at CERN’s Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) facility. Nine of these atoms were produced in collisions between antiprotons and xenon atoms over a period of 3 weeks. Each one remained in existence for about 40 billionths of a second, travelled at nearly the speed of light over a path of 10 metres and then annihilated with ordinary matter. The annihilation produced the signal that showed that the anti-atoms had been created.

Timelines
The story of antimatter, The history of CERN
23 June 1995

The CERN Council admits Japan as an observer state. Japan announces a financial contribution to the LHC. The Japanese Minister for Education, Sciences and Culture offers a Daruma doll to CERN’s Director-General. According to Japanese tradition, an eye is painted on the doll to mark the beginning of the LHC project and the second eye must be drawn at the time of its completion. Japan makes two other major financial contributions to the LHC project in 1996 and 1998.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider
1 May 1995

Industrial robots are installed for manipulation of ISOLDE targets, which allows all target changes and manipulations of used target-ion-source systems to be made without human intervention.

Timelines
ISOLDE
16 December 1994

The CERN council approves the construction of the Large Hadron Collider. To achieve the project without enlarging CERN’s budget, they decide to build the accelerator in two stages.

Timelines
The Large Hadron Collider, The search for the Higgs boson
15 December 1994

ATLAS submitted the technical proposal of the experiment to the LHC Experiments Committee. Approval to proceed with technical design reports was granted in early 1996, followed by the submission of the first report on 15 December of the same year. A long series of technical design reports have been submitted since then. In July 1997, the Committee approved the construction of the ATLAS detector. Teams all over the world built detector components and worked on final technical developments.

 

Timelines
The ATLAS experiment
1 October 1994

In October 1994, Tim Berners-Lee founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) – at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology laboratory for computer science – in collaboration with CERN and with support from DARPA and the European Commission.

Timelines
The birth of the World Wide Web

Pages

You are here